Turret lathe – Wikipedia

Types[ edit ] There are many variants of the turret lathe. They can be most generally classified by size small, medium, or large ; method of control manual, automated mechanically, or automated via computer numerical control NC or computer numerical control CNC ; and bed orientation horizontal or vertical. The term “turret lathe” without further qualification is still understood to refer to this type.
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Types[ edit ] There are many variants of the turret lathe. They can be most generally classified by size small, medium, or large ; method of control manual, automated mechanically, or automated via computer numerical control NC or computer numerical control CNC ; and bed orientation horizontal or vertical. The term “turret lathe” without further qualification is still understood to refer to this type.

The formative decades for this class of machine were the s through s, when the basic idea of mounting an indexable turret on a bench lathe or engine lathe was born, developed, and disseminated from the originating shops to many other factories.

Root of Colt ; J. Alvord of the Sharps Armory ; Frederick W. Howe, Richard S. Lawrence, and Henry D. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Sometimes machines similar to those above, but with power feeds and automatic turret-indexing at the end of the return stroke, are called “semi-automatic turret lathes”.

This nomenclature distinction is blurry and not consistently observed. The term “turret lathe” encompasses them all. During the s, when semi-automatic turret lathes were developed, [2] they were sometimes called “automatic”.

What we today would call “automatics”, that is, fully automatic machines, had not been developed yet. During that era both manual and semi-automatic turret lathes were sometimes called “screw machines”, although we today reserve that term for fully automatic machines.

Main article: Automatic lathe During the s through s, the mechanically automated “automatic” turret lathe was developed and disseminated. These machines can execute many part-cutting cycles without human intervention.

Thus the duties of the operator, which were already greatly reduced by the manual turret lathe, were even further reduced, and productivity increased. These machines use cams to automate the sliding and indexing of the turret and the opening and closing of the chuck. Thus, they execute the part-cutting cycle somewhat analogously to the way in which an elaborate cuckoo clock performs an automated theater show. Small- to medium-sized automatic turret lathes are usually called ” screw machines ” or “automatic screw machines”, while larger ones are usually called “automatic chucking lathes”, “automatic chuckers”, or “chuckers”.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message When World War II ended, the digital computer was poised to develop from a colossal laboratory curiosity into a practical technology that could begin to disseminate into business and industry. The advent of electronics-based automation in machine tools via numerical control NC and then computer numerical control CNC displaced to a large extent, but not at all completely, the previously existing manual and mechanically automated machines.

Today, most CNC lathes have turrets, and so could logically be called “turret lathes”, but the terminology is usually not used that way. Horizontal CNC lathes, with or without turrets, are generally called “CNC lathes” or “CNC turning centers” or “turning centers”, and the term “turret lathe” by itself is still usually understood in context to refer to horizontal, manual turret lathes.

The changed role in the production process that such machines now play is reflected in another name for them, second-operation lathe, as explained later. January Learn how and when to remove this template message The term “vertical turret lathe” VTL is applied to machines wherein the same essential design of the horizontal version is upended, which allows the headstock to sit on the floor and the faceplate to become a horizontal rotating table, analogous to a huge potter’s wheel.

This is useful for the handling of very large, heavy, short workpieces. Vertical lathes in general are also called “vertical boring mills” or often simply “boring mills”; therefore a vertical turret lathe is a vertical boring mill equipped with a turret. In many times and places, it has been understood to be synonymous with “turret lathe”.

In other times and places it has been held in technical contradistinction to “turret lathe”, with the difference being in whether the turret’s slide is fixed to the bed ram-type turret or slides on the bed’s ways saddle-type turret. The word “capstan” could logically seem to refer to the turret itself, and to have been inspired by the nautical capstan. A lathe turret with tools mounted in it can very much resemble a nautical capstan full of handspikes.

This interpretation would lead Americans to treat “capstan” as a synonym of “turret” and “capstan lathe” as a synonym of “turret lathe”. However, the multi-spoked handles that the operator uses to advance the slide are also called capstans, and they themselves also resemble the nautical capstan.

No distinction between “turret lathe” and “capstan lathe” persists upon translation from English into other languages. Most translations involve the term “revolver”, and serve to translate either of the English terms.

The words “turret” and “tower”, the former being a diminutive of the latter, come ultimately from the Latin “turris”, which means “tower”, and the use of “turret” both to refer to lathe turrets and to refer to gun turrets seems certainly to have been inspired by its earlier connection to the turrets of fortified buildings and to siege towers. The history of the rook in chess is connected to the same history, with the French word for rook, tour, meaning “tower”.

It is an interesting coincidence that the word “tour” in French can mean both “lathe” and “tower”, with the first sense coming ultimately from Latin “tornus”, “lathe”, and the second sense coming ultimately from Latin “turris”, “tower”. Flat[ edit ] A subtype of horizontal turret lathe is the flat-turret lathe. Its turret is flat and analogous to a rotary table , allowing the turret to pass beneath the part. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Hollow-hexagon turret lathes competed with flat-turret lathes by taking the conventional hexagon turret and making it hollow, allowing the part to pass into it during the cut, analogously to how the part would pass over the flat turret.

In both cases, the main idea is to increase rigidity by allowing a relatively long part to be turned without the tool overhang that would be needed with a conventional turret, which is not flat or hollow. Monitor lathe[ edit ] The term “monitor lathe” formerly ss referred to the class of small- to medium-sized manual turret lathes used on relatively small work. The name was inspired by the monitor-class warships , which the monitor lathe’s turret resembled.

Today, lathes of such appearance, such as the Hardinge DSM and its many clones, are still common, but the name “monitor lathe” is no longer current in the industry. Toolpost turrets and tailstock turrets[ edit ] Turrets can be added to non-turret lathes bench lathes, engine lathes, toolroom lathes, etc. Often these turrets are not as large as a turret lathe’s, and they usually do not offer the sliding and stopping that a turret lathe’s turret does; but they do offer the ability to index through successive tool settings.

Significance to the history of technology[ edit ].

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